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Lakselus fører til færre sjøørret

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Lakselus kan påvirke både vekst, overlevelse og atferd hos sjøørreten, ifølge en omfattende internasjonal kunnskapsoppsummering.

Sammen med andre forskere fra ledende miljøer i Norge, Irland og Storbritannia, har NINA oppsummert effekten lakselus har på sjøørret, basert på en gjennomgang av internasjonale vitenskapelige publikasjoner.

–  Det er et stort arbeid som er lagt ned, forteller NINA-forsker Bengt Finstad, som har ledet arbeidet.

Nå er kunnskapsoppsummeringen publisert i det anerkjente internasjonale tidsskriftet Aquaculture Environment Interactions. Hele artikkelen ligger åpent tilgjengelig på nett, og kan lastes ned her.

Påvirker både vekst, overlevelse og atferd

–   Vi har gått inn og sett på effekten av lakselus på sjøørret både i Norge og internasjonalt, og vist at lus har effekt på både vekst, overlevelse og atferd, forteller Finstad.

Bare en del av ørreten vandrer til sjøen. Den sjøvandrende ørreten blir vanligvis større og har mange flere egg enn den stasjonære ørreten, men redusert vekst og overlevelse blant disse på grunn av lakselus vil minke fordelene ved sjøvandring. Dermed kan resultatet bli en seleksjon som favoriserer stasjonær ørret i områder med mye lakselus, og en får færre sjøørret.

Kan påvirke ørretfisket

Det høres kanskje ikke så dramatisk ut at lusa kan føre til færre sjøvandrende ørret, men det kan føre til en redusert framtidig rekruttering og mindre høstbart overskudd av ørret for fiske.

–    Den stasjonære fisken får dårligere vekst og kvaliteten vil være dårligere, forklarer Finstad.

I ekstreme tilfeller kan sjøvandring forsvinne lokalt. Bestander av sjøørret som lever i små bekker og elver med ustabile miljøforhold i deler av året, og som er avhengig av å være i sjøen for å overleve i disse periodene, står i så fall i fare for å forsvinne.

Nærhet til oppdrettsanlegg viktig for lusemengden

Sjøørret i oppdrettsfrie områder har generelt lave nivå av lakselus. Flere undersøkelser har vist at det er mer lakselus på vill sjøørret nær oppdrettsanlegg enn lenger unna. Det er spesielt i områder som ligger mindre enn 30 kilometer fra oppdrettsanlegg at sjøørreten er mest utsatt, men i noen tilfeller også lengre unna.

–   Det var oppdrettsnæringen selv som ønsket denne gjennomgangen av tilgjengelig litteratur, og oppsummeringen er gjort på oppdrag fra Fiskeri- og havbruksnæringens forskningsfond (FHF), kan Finstad fortelle.

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